Hotels in Uyuni Explore the Salt Flat and surrounding areas Bus to Uyuni When to visit How to visit
The Uyuni Salt Flats, also called Salar de Uyuni in Spanish are located in southwest Bolivia. This white expanse at the feet of the Tunupa volcano is the world's largest salt desert, around 11000 square kilometers.
The Uyuni salt flat is even larger than the Lake Titicaca, a vast stretch of water shared by Bolivia and neighbouring Peru.
The salt flats themselves are at 3600 meters above sea level in the Andes - making it seem almost possible to reach up and touch the clouds from the ground.
The area has long been popular with tourists, particularly those looking for a holiday with a difference.
A few years ago interest started growing in extracting the 5.4m tons of lithium which is found just below the surface of the salt.
The salt is over 10 meters thick in the center. In the dry season, the salt plains are a completely flat expanse of dry salt, but in the wet season, the surface is covered with a thin sheet of water that reflects the sky like a giant mirror.
The Salar de Uyuni was formed by the disappearance of an inland ocean that covered most of the Altiplano and extended all the way to the Titicaca Lake. This body of water disappeared about 13000 years ago.
It is an extraordinary experience to cross this lake of salt by car, especially during the winter, because at that time the sky is completely clear and the bright blue color of the sky contrasts brilliantly with the salt. On a cloudy day there is a "white-out" effect: the horizon seems to blend in with the sky and you can hardly tell where the salt lake actually ends.
Amid this shiny white desert there are idle polyhedral figures that seem to emerge from the ground; these shapes have been formed by nature.
The islands in the middle of the salt desert are attractions that marvel all visitors.
Isla Pescado (Fish Island)
The Cujiri Island, better known as Fish Island, is located at 74 kilometers from Colchani, right in the middle of the salar. It has a total extension of 100 hectares and a very picturesque scenery.
The layer of granite and organic materials have yielded a strange breed of giant cactus (over 6 meters in height) which has developed an interesting ecological system.
On the island's summit there is a cave. The internal walls of the cave present a geological cut that provides information of the various layers of the ground. This is perhaps one of the best places to take wonderful pictures of the island and the salt mines as well.
The Incahuasi Island, known as the Fishermen's Island, is formed on top of the remains of a volcano at 120 meters above the surface of the salt. On this island there are 7 archaeological sites that belonged to the Tiwanaku culture. There are two Inca ruins, 30 caverns, 12 natural tunnels and 1 forest of cacti (quirucolumbar, pillaya, piscallu, thulo, huajraguaya, anaguaya).
Alfredo Lazaro (a resident from Llica) has been living on the island since 1987 as a protector of this natural wonder. He has personally counted 4030 adult cacti, 5000 cacti that are still developing and 16 which are either burnt or dry. The island is also a nest to several species of birds and home to the cute vizcachas, an American species of rodent, similar in size and form to gophers.
This is a perfect place to contemplate an amazing landscape and to take very unique pictures.
The Salar itself is virtually devoid of any wildlife or vegetation. The latter is dominated by the giant cacti (Echinopsis atacamensis pasacana and Echinopsis tarijensis). They grow at a rate of about 1 centimeter (0.39 in) per year to a height of about 12 meters (39 ft). Other shrubs include Pilaya, which is used by locals to cure catarrh, and Thola (Baccharis dracunculifolia), which is burned as a fuel. Also present are quinoa plants and quewiña bushes.
Every November the Salar de Uyuni and the region around it is the breeding ground for three species of pink South American flamingo: the Chilean, Andean and rare James's Flamingos, their color presumably originating from feeding on colourful algae. There are about 80 other bird species present, including the Horned Coot, Andean Goose and Andean Hillstar. The Andean fox (culpeo) is a representative animal, and the "islands" of Salar (in particular Incahuasi island) host colonies of rabbit-like viscachas.